Patient adherence is a complex issue and a key driver of patient outcomes. Patient adherence is frequently focused on medication use but also includes keeping medical appointments, implementing dietary or other lifestyle changes, following other types of treatment regimens, and implementing recommended preventative health care practices. It is important to recognize that there are many reasons why patients do not adhere to medical treatments and/or recommendations. Understanding the reasons behind nonadherence can help clinicians resolve any barriers and target the health condition accurately. Here we provide adherence-enhancing strategies that can be applied in a primary care setting.